Facilitating the process of critical thinking for nursing
Once the researcher was satisfied with the establishment of validity and reliability for the compilation of the instrument and scoring rubric, data collection for phase 3 could commence.
Facilitating the process of critical thinking for nursing
To address complicated and problematic situations, intellectual courage and fair-mindedness would also be essential. Critical thinking is understood to be purposeful, self-regulatory judgments which result in interpretation, analysis, evaluation and inference, as well as explanation of the evidential, conceptual, methodological, criteriological or contextual considerations upon which that judgment is based Facione, Once the researcher was satisfied with the establishment of validity and reliability for the compilation of the instrument and scoring rubric, data collection for phase 3 could commence. An imagined case scenario on a common paediatric case was developed for participants to analyse. A validated case study 15 was presented to the nursing students to identify a priority nursing diagnosis, based on the taxonomy of Nanda-I 1 , and to identify the critical thinking skills used, and the justifications for their use in the nursing diagnosis process. The critical thinking skills identified in the nursing diagnosis process consist of the following factors: analysis, technical and scientific knowledge, logical reasoning, clinical experience, knowledge about the patient, application of standards, discernment and contextual perspective. Educ Leadersh. The analysis phase requires data are separated into constituent parts define their interrelationships, and this phase is characterized by the categorization of data, identification of gaps, and the identification of convergent data. Therefore, that the application of this process may constitute a strategy that enables the development of critical thinking skills. What other sources of information are available?
For Internal validity and reliability was done by utilizing a quasi-experimental design the researcher was responsible for establishing and maintaining internal validity in the quasi-experimental design by ruling out factors that may have been a threat to the observed outcome, thereby determining whether the outcome of the post-test was the result of the intervention  .
In summary, the diagnosis process is operationalized as the investigation, collection, validation and organization of data, followed by the identification of standards, data registration and interpretation of the data, with the aim of identifying a precise diagnosis 7.
After the pre-test had been distributed to the students the educational programme was offered, over a period of three days, to the students in Windhoek.
Critical thinking in nursing articles
Thus, it was comprehended that the base of technician-scientific knowledge favors the development of the nursing diagnosis process by allowing the nurse to understand the relation of signals and symptoms to establish problems and care. Face validity also known as content-related validity was ensured  seeing that it concerned a paediatric case which was familiar to the senior nursing students. Construct validity was also ensured by asking applicable questions in line with the overall purpose of the educational programme. Learning has only taken place if it is evident Figure 1. This study described an established relationship between critical thinking skills and the steps of the diagnostic process in nursing. The development of intellectual curiosity was also included. A pre-test post-test control group design was implemented  . It provides the basis for selecting interventions to achieve the results for which the nurse is responsible 1. This served to establish voluntary, fully informed participation of the student nurses in the completion of the questionnaire on the case scenario as well as for participation in the study. According to  , small group discussions can be very frustrating if not well planned but on the other hand very rewarding if well planned. This condition can be eliminated by means of small group discussions. The threats to internal validity for this quasi-expe- rimental design were identified and addressed as indicated in Table 2. In order to establish validity and reliability for the phase, the instrument was tested . Data collection for phase 3 was carried out by means of a pre-test that included the simultaneous testing of both the students on the Windhoek campus and the students on the Oshakati campus.
However, the role of the researcher as facilitator in this exercise was of the utmost importance and cannot be ignored. It provides the basis for selecting interventions to achieve the results for which the nurse is responsible 1.
The role of the facilitator during the educational programme was highlighted and the emphasis in the implementation of the educational programme was on active participation.
How to improve critical thinking in nursing
The first phase consists of an analysis and synthesis of data to appraise the responses of the individual, family and community to health problems or life processes. Anonymity was ensured because only numbers appeared on the completed case scenario answers; information obtained from respondents were not identified in terms of the identity of the respondent and thereby confidentiality was ensured. It is also believed that the case studies associated with the development of conceptual maps can help in the development of logical reasoning and, consequently, can facilitate the discernment for decision making regarding the priority nursing diagnosis as they allow for the visualization of interrelated concepts arranged in a configuration that expresses a meaning and, therefore, contributes to the understanding of specific phenomena of the clinical practice. One strategy where the input and presence of the facilitator were imperative was the utilization of small group discussions. Thus, it becomes essential to better understand critical thinking in the nursing context to ascertain the primary cognitive difficulties encountered by students during the application of the nursing diagnosis process. These findings highlights the necessity of using strategies designed to develop critical thinking abilities, in nursing education as well as in clinical practice. The analysis process begins with the data collection and continues with its interpretation and with its grouping based on the application of standards and logical reasoning. Facilitating critical thinking within the nursing process framework: A literature review M M Chabeli Abstract This article intends to describe how critical thinking of learners can be facilitated or infused in clinical nursing education using the identified core cognitive critical thinking skills, their related sub-skills and the affective dispositions.
The questions were then analyzed according to a scoring rubric which was compiled by the researcher to ensure consistency in marking. What other sources of information are available? Room for dual interaction between participants and the facilitator during the implementation of the educational programme was also allowed.
Thus, diagnosis represents the result of a diagnostic process, which is defined as a method used to determine the health problem of the client, including an evaluation of the etiologic factors that underlie the problem.
According to an alternate perspective, the nursing diagnosis process involves two phases. The whole population of students from two campuses had the possibility of being part of the research study.
ABSTRACT The overall purpose of phase 3 was to implement the educational programme that was developed to facilitate the development of critical thinking in the student nurse.
based on 36 review