Civilization and its discontents.
He sees this socialist stage as necessary for but inevitably leading to the establishment of communism. Sigmund Freud introduced us to the three components of human personality: id, ego and superego. Now, they embraced Fromm for concrete and upbeat guidelines for bringing love more amply into their lives.
According to Marx the first form is in where the goal of a commodity is becoming money and at the end become a commodity.The reforms which Marx outlines as occurring in the socialist state have the common goal of disimpowering the bourgeoisie and increasing economic equality. For Marx, the economic status of human beings determines their consciousness. Although human beings are motivated by economics, they will ultimately be able to establish a society which is not based on economic oppression. However, with the advent of civilization, humanity has moved further and further away from its original evolutionary drives, and it can be argued by secular thinkers that humans exist now to find happiness. The pressure is placed upon the satisfaction of an individual needs not the general interest of the whole community. Surplus-value expands money in spontaneous and automatic form, and occurs when adding surplus as an occult quality; e. Marx, Karl and Engels, Friedrich. Each were great thinkers and philosophers, but both seemed unhappy. Because of the nature of our material bodies, we are needy, labouring, sociable, sexual, communicative, self-expressive animals who need one another to survive, but who come to find a fulfilment in that companionship over and above its social usefulness… Because we are laboring, desiring, linguistic creatures, we are able to transform our conditions in the process we know as history. Yet when humans begin to form families it creates new social relations between them and leads to division of labor.
Marx briefly traces the development of this through different periods, mentioning some of the various oppressed and oppressing classes, but points out that in earlier societies there were many gradations of social classes. As we have seen, there needed to have been two sets of preconditions that together amounted to necessary and sufficient conditions: 1 the necessary predisposing conditions—an authoritarian or predisposing character and 2 the necessary precipitating conditions [economic collapse, the rise of Nazism, etc].
In the form that might add a perspective of possibilities to change the basic social institutions to somehow reduce or eliminate such restrictions.
Freud can not offer some vision of a human utopia, but can only suggest that there is some possibility for the improvement of the human condition and society, but also warns that our success at overcoming destructive instincts may be limited.
In doing so, we come to transform ourselves at the same time.
Although human beings are motivated by economics, they will ultimately be able to establish a society which is not based on economic oppression. While Fromm argued that psychoanalytic categories could be applied to social phenomena as well as to individuals, Reich argued that the opposite was the case: There are plenty of instances of human social behaviour in which the unconscious instinctual mechanisms interposed in human action, which psychoanalysis has described and which are of decisive importance in other phenomena, play virtually no part at all.The way the history develops is through the oppression of a more powerful individual, whose main goal is to satisfy his own needs. However, with the advent of civilization, humanity has moved further and further away from its original evolutionary drives, and it can be argued by secular thinkers that humans exist now to find happiness. The second form referring to Marx is considered as the inverted form referring to the fort form, in the second form the buyer gives money with the goal to get it back as a seller, this is, to put in the market a commodity and obtain the same amount of money for it. Here, as in his writings on religion, Fromm often seems closer to Feuerbach than to Marx. One name who is highly debated and criticized for his theories is neurologist Sigmund Freud. As Thompson admits: Even in the darkest war years the democratic impulse can still be felt at work beneath the surface… The Combination Acts served only to bring illegal Jacobin and trade union strands closer together. Marx argues and affirms that practical application for every individual freedom is basically the right of private property. To do so, I shall first provide a brief biographical overview. Change in other words, is not the opposite of human nature; it is possible because of the creative, open-ended, unfinished beings we are. Freud mentions that there is no persuasion to induce humans to become termites. Freud does not offer any radical solutions to human aggressiveness, but rather sees it as something that humans must continually strive to overcome. But what distinguishes the worst architect from the best of bees is this, that the architect raises his structure in imagination before he erects it in reality. Yet when humans begin to form families it creates new social relations between them and leads to division of labor. Marx provides information that the universal freedom of France has not yet been established by laws, neither the Jewish issues has been resolved. Yet private ownership of means of production land, machine, raw material, etc.
Was it only the middle classes in Germany who harboured such murderous potential?