Human nature and war

Humans spend most of their time not having sex; does this suggest that evolution has designed us for abstinence, or that sex is a cultural invention?

Because so much is at stake, and implications are as far reaching as they are complex, readers should be wary of arguments that reduce the question of war or aggression to one side of a general dichotomy such as nature or nurture, good or bad, innate or learned.

War and Human Nature Frans de Waal, a primatologist, begins by correctly lamenting the fact that the study of human behavior has too often emphasized our aggressive tendencies.

What is human nature

Needless to say, fears and phobias tend not to motivate behavior by triggering pleasure centers in the brain. If more people work for prevention, the eventual eradication of war is a definite theoretical possibility. In short, natural selection may engineer a range of rewards and costs to motivate behavior. Since ETVOL will be featuring an interview with Scott Atran in the coming weeks, we postpone a discussion of this research until that time. Examples of such existences abound from the failed states of Somalia and the Democratic Republic of Congo, and it is for this reason that man yields his freedoms to authority, the only guarantor of peace. There is not space here to review this debate, but one aspect of the argument seems to warrant some scrutiny. Lopez received a Ph. Humans who live in equatorial regions probably spend most of their life not shivering; does this imply that shivering does not have a biological basis since some cultures are rarely if ever observed shivering?

Stay tuned! What is really at fault here is the pessimist view that human nature is irrationally inclined to violence.

war is the natural state of man

War is fundamentally a collective action, and as such, it requires a substantial amount of within-group coordination, cooperation, and altruism. As Hobbes observed, there is a great distrust among men. There is not space here to review this debate, but one aspect of the argument seems to warrant some scrutiny.

His research investigates war as the product of an evolved coalitional psychology, and examines the relationship between inter-group conflict and intra-group cooperation from an adaptationist perspective.

War and human nature quotes

It's a topic he's been studying since the Vietnam War, a period in history that sparked his interest. His research investigates war as the product of an evolved coalitional psychology, and examines the relationship between inter-group conflict and intra-group cooperation from an adaptationist perspective. Group selection has enjoyed resurgence in the previous two decades, and Bowles has been one of its foremost advocates. Mearsheimer, J. New York: W. Modern adaptationism, and the entire field of behavioral ecology, has thrived on the understanding that animals capable of complex behavior possess psychological adaptations that enable a range of context-specific behavior. Although not insoluble, it would have been useful for Bowles to address this issue, especially since his framing of reproductive leveling invokes a view of the mind as already capable of establishing the types of norms and institutions that reproductive leveling is meant to explain in the first place. Warfare and human nature seem inextricably linked. Crisp and Rose Meleady explore the social psychological foundations of human groupishness. Quite interestingly, among captive groups of chimpanzees, the balance of power between males and females tends to resemble their bonobo cousins, since in these environments females are better able to form strong coalitions.

War and Peace Nothing succeeds like success, and according to Sam Bowles, success at waging and winning wars has propelled expansion and innovation in human socio-political organization.

Ferguson argues, however, that there is no real indication or scientific proof that humans have been waging war for the entire history of the species.

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The Science of War, and the War Over Human Nature