Leadership and organizational behavior research paper

Defining Congruent Selves Carl Rogers first coined the term "congruent" when he described the alignment of three components of the Self; self-view, self-appraisal, and the conceptual or ideal self.

Leadership and organizational behavior research paper

Adaptation : helps the group to define its goal in a way that is consistent with the demands of the environment in which operates. As a researchable construct, congruency has rarely been considered outside of therapy or psychoanalysis. The 5, 5 or the middle-of-the road style concerns the moderate levels of concern for both people and production. Managerial Grid: The five basic approaches to management identified by Black and Mouton are based on the two dimensions of concern of people and concern for production that are associated with leaders. The second example is revealed by the impact of signing an agreement within the firm. It is widely believed in the world of business that leadership is the key ingredient in the recipe for corporate achievement. And, if you look at some of the great leaders throughout history, such as Martin Luther King, Jr. Individuals experience a congruent self when their social and public lives parallel their internal Charismatic leadership is central to transformational leaderships. Successful leaders are distinguished form unsuccessful leaders by their particular style of leadership. Then, the economic crisis and the corporatist model create more demanding working environments, where the employees spend longer hours. Ethical conduct would normally imply discretion in the relationship between two individuals, but office ethics have to protect the working environment against any negative impact resulted from socialization and fraternization of its staff members. In terms of the second risk, that of decreased office productivity as a result of curiosity, this could be addressed by ensuring that the disclosure of the relationship and the signing of the CRA be kept confidential between the parties in the relationship and their direct supervisor; still, such an objective might be difficult to attain. Individuals experience a congruent self when their social and public lives parallel their internal experience. Integration : some mechanism must coordinate the activities of group members towards the common goal e.

A task-oriented style will be effective in such situation. Moderately Favorable Situation: Here the leader might find herself in a mixed situation. In fact, on multiple occasions, the personal life of the employee is intertwined with the professional setting, where they make friends or even commence romances.

Transformational leaders arouse strong emotions.

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Charismatic leadership is central to transformational leaderships. If manager is securing the lowest score on these two dimensions I,I is identified as impoverished style of managers who are low on both their concern of people and production, 1,9 or country club style is designated to those managers who are having high concern for people but low concern for production. Supportive Leadership Behavior: This concerns giving support consideration to the needs of the subordinates, displaying concern for their well-being and welfare and creating a friendly and pleasant environment. In order to avoid these risks, employers often turn to contracts which regulate the romances; these are officially known as consensual relationship agreements, and informally referred to as love contracts. Rogers believed that to the degree these selves overlap, an individual experiences congruency. Subordinates accept influence from leaders because they respect, like, or admire them as well as because they hold positions of formal authority that is, leaders may have both position power and personal power. Situational theories outlines that the effectiveness of the leader is not only determined by his or her style of behavior, but also by the situation surrounding the leadership environment. Alternative to consensual relationship agreements The consensual relationship agreements are developed and enforced as a compulsory organizational element, and by not respecting it, the employees will be subjected to the adherent consequences. For instance, the two employees could just be starting to date, when they would have to put a label on their fresh and still developing relationship. Congruent and Incongruent Selves: Exploring the structure of authenticity Effective leadership requires authentic leaders, those with psychological integrity between their private and professional identities. In this respect, authentic leaders relate well to themselves and well to others and have exponentially more powerful influence over followers because of their experience of congruent selves. Ethics of using consensual relationship agreements The employment of consensual relationship agreements within the modern day workplace is normally aimed to help the company protect itself against sexual harassment charges resulted from a failed relationship, which would imply litigations, financial costs and loses of organizational reputation. In terms of the second risk, that of decreased office productivity as a result of curiosity, this could be addressed by ensuring that the disclosure of the relationship and the signing of the CRA be kept confidential between the parties in the relationship and their direct supervisor; still, such an objective might be difficult to attain. In order to mitigate such risks, the consensual relationship agreement should normally be eliminated from the workplace. Situational factors include the characteristics of the leader and the subordinates, the nature of the task and the structure of the group.

Through these contracts, the employees declare that their relationship is a consensual one and state how they would proceed if the relationship were to end. A directive leader is suitable for supportives for external locus of control.

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Middle Of The Road Mgmt 5,5 : Adequate organizational performance is possible through balancing the necessity to get out work with maintaining morale of the people at satisfying level. Counter argument to consensual relationship agreements As it has been mentioned throughout the previous section, the primary benefit of using consensual relationship agreements is represented by the ability to protect the firm.

Ethical conduct would normally imply discretion in the relationship between two individuals, but office ethics have to protect the working environment against any negative impact resulted from socialization and fraternization of its staff members.

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A managerial grid is formed based on these two dimensions which are rated on 9 point scale. The benefits to the company of the achievement-oriented leader approach include greater employee confidence and commitment, more employee decision making, increased employee creativity, more challenging objectives, and reduced supervision for employees who work best independently.

It is widely believed in the world of business that leadership is the key ingredient in the recipe for corporate achievement. Still, as the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, only an estimated five per cent of such charges are resulted from failed office romances.

journal of leadership and organizational development
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Leadership and Organizational Behaviour Research Papers